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Equine  Hendra Vaccination - Science
Equine  Hendra Vaccination - Science
In Australia
In Australia
Equine  Hendra Vaccination - Science
Equine  Hendra Vaccination - Science
In Australia
In Australia

VIRAL SHEDDING

Definition - Viral shedding

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Viral shedding refers to the expulsion and release of virus progeny following successful reproduction during a host-cell infection. Once replication has been completed and the host cell is exhausted of all resources in making viral progeny, the viruses may begin to leave the cell by several methods.

The term is used to refer to shedding from a single cell, shedding from one part of the body into another part of the body, and shedding from bodies into the environment where the viruses may infect other bodies.

A person with a viral disease is contagious if they are shedding viruses.

 

SOURCE LINK:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_shedding

More scientific term explanations

 

BRIAN KENNEDY SHARED A LINK. to the group: Say NO to the Hendra Vaccination (say YES to Pro Choice).

July 15 2019 ·

Some interesting reading if you are a vet and are pushing the Hendra vaccine and are coercing the use of this product the safety of your clients and yourself could possibly be in jeopardy and APVMA, biosecurity and DPI should be all over this. It would appear this creates serious questions in regard to the statement that the vaccine is the best way to deal with Hendra virus

SOURCE LINK:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/117313008292880/permalink/1595786720445494/

EFFICACY STUDY - DID YOU KNOW ?

 2016 Pig Efficacy Study - HeV vaccination resulted in NO REDUCTION IN VIRAL SHEDDING.

 

In the Hendra viral challenge study of HeVsG vaccinated pigs (Hendra vaccine), the vaccinated pigs did not show any reduction in viral shedding when challenged with either Hendra or Nipah virus. In fact, in the graph for Hendra virus challenge, the vaccinated pigs on average shed virus AT HIGHER LEVELS than the control.

 

The HeV vaccinated pigs were expected to be immune with average antibody titres to Hendra virus of 320. The vaccinated pigs after challenge with Hendra virus had “no reduction of viral RNA load in the respiratory tract” and a reduction to some extent in the tonsils and draining lymphatics. The study concluded that the vaccine only provided partial immunity to Hendra virus in pigs.

For the Nipah virus challenge with HeV vaccinated pigs, the anti-Nipah antibody titre was 40-80 and the HeV vaccine provided no reduction in viral shedding nor protection against NiV.

The only arm of the study that provided protection from Henipavirus infection involved unvaccinated pigs that were first infected with 1/10 the dose of live Nipah virus used to challenge the vaccinated pigs, then challenged with the same dose as the vaccinated pigs 28 days after the initial infection. These previously Nipah virus infected unvaccinated pigs, although having lower antibody levels than vaccinated pigs, were actually protected from Nipah virus infection when challenged.

In this swine efficacy study, cell-mediated immunity (CMI) parameters were measured as part of the study. The HeV vaccine failed to activate cellular immune (CMI) response in the Hendra vaccinated pigs, unlike the natural virus infected pigs. There was “no detectable immune memory cells generated in response to immunization”. It was concluded that cell-mediated immunity in addition to humoral immunity (antibodies) was necessary for protection from Henipavirus infection in pigs. Very basically, immunity involves both humoral (antibodies produced from B lymphocytes) and cell-mediated elements (such as T lymphocytes).

Vaccination could have helped reduce clinical symptoms and signs of the disease, as only 2 of the 8 vaccinated pigs had a rise in temperature. The study stated that “Disease prevention was not considered a reliable parameter of protection”.

 “Protection against henipaviruses in swine requires both, cell-mediated and humoral immune response”,

 

SOURCE LINKS :

Pickering et al, Vaccine, 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544586

Relevance to the horse studies:

By BRIAN KENNEDY

 • Pigs are not horses, so results are not directly applicable! BUT, horse viral challenge efficacy studies were very small in numbers and did not use virulence controls of the same species (ie a horse). The horse studies used guinea pigs or ferrets as virulence controls which introduces confounding variables and this potentially reduces the reliability of results. This is with the exception of the first study with only 2 test horses and 1 control horse. The pig study used pigs as virulence controls and in this respect could be considered to be of superior design to the horse studies.

 • Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) parameters were not mentioned in published material for any of the horse studies and one has to wonder if these measures were performed.

 • Some studies indicate the importance of CMI as well as humoral immunity (antibody titres) for Hendra protection in horses.*

 • Other articles also state that this subunit HeVsG vaccine (the Hendra vaccine) is weaker than other vaccines at stimulating Cell Mediated Immunity.**

 • There is more to providing protection from Hendra virus than just antibody titres.

 This is an interesting article to consider. It is worth wearing PPE to be on the safe side even when treating a Hendra virus vaccinated animal.

 *“A limited number of reports also suggested the importance of the cellular immune response, at least in swine, horses and hamsters.” From the introduction to the pig study.

 **From another horse HeV vaccine candidate research paper by French researchers, “The possibility that ALVAC could induce both humoral and cellular immunity against HeV may have particular advantages to the existing subunit vaccine in horses, which mainly targets the Ab induction.”

 

“Protection from Hendra virus infection with Canarypox recombinant vaccine”, V. Guillaume-Vasselin et al, Npj Vaccines, 2016. http://www.nature.com/articles/npjvaccines20163 There are other examples that mention that the protein subunit vaccine mainly targets the humoral antibody response.

Protection against henipaviruses in swine requires both, cell-mediated and humoral immune response.

 SOURCE LINKS : 

https://www.facebook.com/groups/117313008292880/permalink/1595786720445494/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?fbclid=IwAR1SycaecwlWi7wHhe76v7pQQj5B86_YvvviY5OyTxbpcTvICGbf81uXPGY

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X16307009

WHO & WHY WAS THE VACCINE DEVELOPED?

Media Statements

Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

The Honourable John McVeigh

Thursday, November 01, 2012

MINISTER WELCOMES RELEASE OF HENDRA VIRUS VACCINE

Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry John McVeigh today welcomed the release of a Hendra virus vaccine by commercial vaccine manufacturer Pfizer Animal Health.

Minister McVeigh said the Queensland Government had committed $300,000 to the Australian Animal Health Laboratory to support the development of the horse vaccine.

“The vaccine has been developed through collaboration between Pfizer Animal Health, CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Uniformed Service University of the Health Sciences and the Henry M Jackson Foundation,” said Mr McVeigh.

“The release of the vaccine offers real hope for the horse industry in the fight against Hendra.

“It is important to stress however, that this vaccine has been released under special conditions which must be followed. Only veterinarians who have completed an online training module managed by Pfizer Animal Health will be accredited to administer the vaccine.

“Queensland horse owners should discuss with their veterinarian whether vaccinating their horses is appropriate. The Government has not made the Hendra virus vaccine compulsory for horses in Queensland.

“People in contact with horses also need to continue to practice good biosecurity and personal hygiene measures even if their horses are vaccinated.”

Mr McVeigh said the Newman Government was providing a personal protective equipment (PPE) rebate program earlier this year, to support vets when dealing with suspected Hendra virus cases.

“The program allows Queensland vets to apply for a rebate on eligible PPE used in taking samples in the investigation of horses suspected of being infected with Hendra virus,” said Mr McVeigh.

“The Government has committed to providing $1 million over four years to the PPE program.”

Mr McVeigh said there had been seven Hendra virus incidents in Queensland so far this year and an unprecedented 10 incidents in 2011.

For more information on Hendra virus, visit

 

www.biosecurity.qld.gov.au

or call 13 25 23.

For more information on the vaccine visit

www.health4horses.com.au (external site)

Follow Biosecurity Queensland on Facebook and Twitter (@BiosecurityQld).

1 November 2012

Media: Louise Gillis – 0408 709 160

 

SOURCE LINK:

http://statements.qld.gov.au/Statement/2012/11/1/minister-welcomes-release-of-hendra-virus-vaccine?fbclid=IwAR2S72P_SNw6rsuk8xtWnh21AybAIyd8Neqp4rLzNpMYhQB0lbX5ZjhGZDg

SEE ALSO:

https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/BF/Areas/Protecting-Animal-and-Human-Health/Zoonotic-capability/Hendra

EXPLANATIONS

Various sources

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are members of the genus Henipavirus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are members of the genus Henipavirus, within the family Paramyxoviridae. Nipah virus has caused outbreaks of human disease in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, India and Philippines, in addition to a large outbreak in swine in Malaysia in 1998/1999. Recently, NiV was suspected to be a causative agent of an outbreak in horses in 2014 in the Philippines, while HeV has caused multiple human and equine outbreaks in Australia since 1994. 

 

HENIPAVIRUS

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henipavirus is a genus of RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing five established species. Henipaviruses are naturally harboured by pteropid fruit bats (flying foxes) and microbats of several species. Henipaviruses are characterised by long genomes and a wide host range. Their recent emergence as zoonotic pathogens capable of causing illness and death in domestic animals and humans is a cause of concern

SOURCE LINK:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henipavirus

 

NIPAH VIRUS

Nipah virus can cause fatal illness in people and animals (pigs, horses, dogs, cats) and is therefore of considerable public health and veterinary concern.

Fruit bats (genus Pteropus) are the natural hosts for Nipah virus, but infection in bats causes no apparent disease. Nipah virus is closely related to Hendra virus (first described in 1994 in Australia).

SOURCE LINK:

https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/farms-fishing-forestry/agriculture/livestock/animal-welfare/pests-diseases-disorders/nipah-virus

 

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY

Synonym(s): Cellular Immunity.  Type of immune response that is produced by the direct action of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), rather than by antibodies.

SOURCE LINK:

https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/glossary/118/cell-mediated-immunity

 

HUMORAL IMMUNITY

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides. Humoral immunity is so named because it involves substances found in the humors, or body fluids. It contrasts with cell-mediated immunity. Its aspects involving antibodies are often called antibody-mediated immunity.

 

The study of the molecular and cellular components that form the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. The immune system is divided into a more primitive innate immune system, and acquired or adaptive immune system of vertebrates, each of which contains humoral and cellular components.

 

Humoral immunity refers to antibody production and the accessory processes that accompany it, including: Th2 activation and cytokine production, germinal center formation and isotype switching, affinity maturation and memory cell generation. It also refers to the effector functions of antibodies, which include pathogen and toxin neutralization, classical complement activation, and opsonin promotion of phagocytosis and pathogen elimination]

SOURCE LINK:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humoral_immunity

ANTIBODY TITER

An antibody titer is a measurement of how much antibody an organism has produced that recognizes a particular epitope, expressed as the inverse of the greatest dilution (in a serial dilution) that still gives a positive result. ELISA is a common means of determining antibody titers.

SOURCE LINK:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibody_titer

MORE ON TITRE TESTING

 LINKS: 

https://www.facebook.com/1513670945543076/photos/a.1691607561082746/1691609527749216/?type=3&theater

https://www.facebook.com/groups/218374315029718/permalink/1075005792699895/

THE HENDRA VIRUS MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY GIVEN TO QUEENSLAND HEALTH WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT IT WOULDN’T BE USED ON A COMMERCIAL BASIS

From the You-Tube video-

"Professor Chris Broder  (speaking) and the Department of Immunology and Microbiology Uniformed Services, USA had found in their work with the Hendra Virus Monoclonal Antibody how neutralising and potent against Hendra and Nipha virus the antibody was, they were the only ones making it at the time. After a mother and daughter exposed to Hendra (in Australia?) in the spring of 2010 they (in USA)  received a call to see if the cell line would be available for further work. In August 2010 the cell line was sent to Qld health - with hope as they (Department of Immunology and Microbiology Uniformed Services, USA)  didn’t have the resources  to produce a lot of antibody or even to  push forward  for even safety testing this would be an opportunity to move forward so that the antibody could be used in any emergency situation for free. The antibody was given to Queensland health with the understanding that it wouldn’t be used on a commercial basis.  Chris Broder was happy that the antibody was ‘plugged into straight away for development”

 SOURCE LINK : 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HOMUU7iBqOY&fbclid=IwAR0ulru4mJ-SIWVoq-tP5z_UXcTKbFHudV8rtfdUufdgOQUyy8oXQazblzo

 

QUEENSLANDERS COMMIT TO FIGHT AGAINST HENDRA

Queensland’s Department of Health has been granted approval to begin testing a monoclonal antibody against the Hendra virus on human volunteers this year.

The approval follows the announcement in late 2013 of a $1.2 million state and federal grant to fund a human clinical safety trial.

Director of AIBN Professor Peter Gray said the trial’s journey began back in 2010 when

Queensland’s Chief Health Officer obtained a licence from the US Department of Defence, to produce the experimental antibody called m102.4.

“The m102.4 monoclonal antibody cell line was originally obtained for the purpose of producing and stockpiling the m102.4 human monoclonal antibody for human compassionate use in cases of Hendra virus exposure,” Prof. Gray said.

Last updated: 1 April 2015

 SOURCE LINK : 

https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-alerts/doh-media-releases/releases/150401-hendra

A NEUTRALIZING HUMAN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY PROTECTS AFRICAN GREEN MONKEYS FROM HENDRA VIRUS CHALLENGE

 SOURCE LINK : 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3313625/

HUMAN CLINICAL TRIALS BEGIN FOR DEADLY HENDRA VIRUS THERAPY May 4, 2015

 

The world's first human clinical trials for a treatment against Hendra virus, a rare but deadly viral disease, have just begun in Australia, using a human monoclonal antibody discovered by Federal scientists at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bethesda, Md.

The m102.4 antibody attacks a critical component of Hendra virus and blocks its ability to infect cells. It was the world's first antibody administered to humans as a treatment against the Hendra virus infection, and was later also used by Zoetis, Inc. (formerly Pfizer Animal Health) working in conjunction with the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Lab, to characterize a successful vaccine against Hendra for animals.

there have been 52 recorded incidents of Hendra virus in horses in Australia since 1994, with 14 in New South Wales and 38 in Queensland. Ninety horses have died from the virus. There have been seven human cases of Hendra (including four fatalities) recorded in Australia, all in Queensland. Experiments have shown that the antibody therapy is also effective against Nipah virus, a related deadly virus that emerged in 1998 and has caused numerous outbreaks in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Singapore. To date, m102.4 has been successfully administered to 10 individuals (nine in Australia and one in the U.S.), on a compassionate use basis, as an experimental human monoclonal antibody therapy to individuals with significant exposure risk for Hendra or Nipah virus.

The Queensland Health department contracted the University of Queensland Australian Institute for Bio-engeering and Nanotechnology, under director Professor Peter Gray, to manufacture the antibody for emergency stockpiles and for recently-started human clinical trials. AIBN has developed a way to produce large quantities of m102.4 without having to replicate any portion of the Hendra virus.

 SOURCE LINK : 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150504120513.htm

 

SEE ALSO:

Zoetis 2018 Financial Report

 SOURCE LINK : 

https://investor.zoetis.com/sites/zoetis.investorhq.businesswire.com/files/doc_library/file/Zoetis_2018_Annual_Report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3DfPnivcmu5lpLMN2nc0lMW2Bnh-9FBlpgRn6QqwF9cWz6booy8mK3CGA

AND

 SOURCE LINK : 

http://www.searo.who.int/entity/research_policy/meetings/4-1-anti-nipah-hendra-virus.pdf?ua=1

 

 WEBPAGE ADMINISTRATORS COMMENT : 

This information, if true, raises a number of issues for me-

The ethics and legalities of a commercial for-profit company, Zoetis, making profit from and antibody was given to Queensland health with the understanding that it wouldn’t be used on a commercial basis.

 

My research has indicated that this monoclonal antibody cell line was used in the development of the Zoetis Equivac HeV Hendra vaccine for horses. How does this fit with the conditions that this monoclonal antibody cell line was provided?

The behaviour of Queensland Health in this matter

.

Where is the development of a human vaccination against Hendra?

A Human vaccine would solve the O.H.S. issues that veterinarians and horse handlers have with the Hendra virus transmission from horses.

Would it be too cynical of me to suspect that the large-scale promotion of the Zoetis Hendra vaccine for horses is s desperate attempt by Zoetis to profiteer from their product before a human vaccine is available as this would seriously damage the sales or their equine vaccine?

NEXT - ESTABLISHING IF YOUR HORSE HAS HENDRA / IS VACCINATED /HAS HENDRA IMMUNITY

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